Male infertility is a condition in which problems like reduced sperm production, abnormal sperm function, or blockages to sperm delivery result in the inability to conceive. Many couples struggle to conceive, and infertility is generally defined as having been unable to conceive after a year or more of regular unprotected sexual intercourse. While it can be sometimes difficult to determine, it appears that male infertility is a factor in around half of these cases.
There are numerous potential causes for male infertility. Inadequate sperm production can be the result of testicular dysfunction or low testosterone. There can also be problems with the tubes that transport sperm from the testicles. The sperm themselves can have issues with motility that prevent them from penetrating the egg.
These mechanisms can be affected by infection, tumors, antibodies, hormone imbalance, medications, prior surgeries, and more. Every case of male infertility is unique, and treatments are varied.